OJ Simpson gets parole: Why are white people still mad?

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Yesterday former NFL running back OJ Simpson was given parole.  Simpson played college football at the University of Southern California and professional football for the Buffalo Bills(1969-77).   After retiring from football he became an actor.  He appeared in television shows like Roots,Fire Power and films like Naked Gun. Back in 1995 Simpson was on trail for a double murder.  He was on trial for the murders of his ex wife Nicole Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman. Simpson was found not guilty and the media has been obsessed with Simpson ever since.  Most whites feel he’s guilty.  Even many blacks think he’s guilty.  But many black people across the country were happy at the verdict.  Mainly because many of us wanted to see if a rich black man could get a fair trial like rich white men get all the time.  It’s been over twenty years and white folks are still mad. Simpson’s first wife was black.  What if he was on trial for killing his black wife and her black friend?  Do you think if he was found not guilty…whites would be upset?  I highly doubt it.  The truth is white people are upset because they believe that a black man got away with killing two white people.

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What about all the lynchings of black men and women in the south?  Some reports say there were over 4,000 murders of innocent black people from 1877-1950.  And that’s a conservative estimate.  I’m sure it’s much higher than that.

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What about this horrific image(above) right here?  That burned a black man alive!  No trial needed at all.  These monsters killed black men,women and children. If there was an accusation against a black man they would just beat him to death. Or just pummel him/her and then hang them! I want you to look at the pictures of these white men and women. Did they go to prison for murder?  Was there a trial for murdering innocent black people? HELL NO!! These demonic bastards have killed millions of black people.  And you want us to be concerned about OJ?  Are you serious?  Two white people don’t equate to millions of dead Africans.  Black lives do NOT matter in a system of white supremacy.  I’m not making any excuses for OJ Simpson.  He’s a sellout coon that chases after white women.  And he hasn’t done much for the black community.  He lived his life wanting  acceptance from whites.  He got his wake up call after this trial.  This issue is bigger than OJ Simpson.  My ancestors were murdered in the Maafa.  And we have gotten no reparations or even an apology from these sick bastards.  So I really don’t give a damn if Simpson gets parole.  I also think he was set up in that robbery attempt.  This was white folks revenge for him getting off in 1995.  White folks teach black people to forgive.  But they want retribution and revenge when they feel someone did them wrong.  Such damn hypocrites!

Who killed Martin Luther King?

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Every January, we start hearing Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr’s infamous, “I Have A Dream” speech, but if you research this still very classified and mysterious murder—and even deeper, the dayz that led up to his assassination—you’ll find this dream is in fact (and continues to be) a nightmare!

This night terror became even more deceitful when white media labeled James Earl Ray the lone assassin. While most accepted, there are those that knew there was another side of the story that was being purposely suppressed.

After witnessing Master Historian, Steve Cokely’s research, we at DGT believe he was able to prove this collusion involved more than Ray. In fact, Cokely points to Jesse Jackson as a pawn used to both murder and replace MLK!

In this conspiratorial gumbo stew, we also find along with the U.S. Government, ‘Gay’ Edgar Hoover, the CIA and COINTELPRO, and countless so-called “Jewish” agents, the Boule’ (aka Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, Inc) also had a hand in it! In particular, we find Boule’ member Jesse having something to do with the changing of King’s room (to #306) as well as putting King’s blood on his shirt once he was dead only to show up later claiming he was the anointed one to lead announcing himself as the heir apparent.

The question that’s been asked but from the wrong context is “why was King assassinated?” See, the MLK whitefolk want people to know about is that he was nonviolent and simply died at the handz of some redneck peckerwood whiteman. What they don’t want you to know is that Martin was changing.

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Having traveled the non-violent route, he realized whitefolk would still continue to be violent. And after Malcolm X was killed, I find King realized the inevitability of his fate; the mortality of his life, yet also understood the important of his last transitioning message; the immortality of self-reliance. This “new” mindset accelerated his death.

In Dr. Kings’ 1967 book, ‘Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community,’ he wrote:

“Black Power, in its broad and positive meaning, is a call to Black people to amass the political and economic strength to achieve their legitimate goals. No one can deny that the Negro is in dire need of this kind of legitimate power.”

King also went on to write:

“Black Power is also a call for the pooling of Black financial resources to achieve economic security. Through the pooling of such resources and the development of habits of thrift and techniques of wise investments, the Negro will be doing his share to grapple with his problem of economic deprivation. If Black Power means the development of this kind of strength within the Negro community, then it is a quest for basic, necessary, legitimate power.”

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The ideas King had on Black politics and economics were the same as Malcolm X. This only heightened the FBIs desire to eliminate King if he were to use Black Nationalist tactics that would be enforced by their Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO), a program designed to neutralize, disrupt and dismantle Black organizationz.

March 4, 1968, the FBI released a classified document that included the need to:

“Prevent the RISE OF A ‘MESSIAH’ who could unify, and electrify, the militant Black Nationalist movement. Malcolm X might have been such a ‘messiah;’ he is the martyr of the movement today. Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael, and [Nation of Islam leader] Elijah Muhammad all aspire to this position. Elijah Muhammad is less of a threat because of his age. King could be a real contender for this position should he abandon his supposed ‘obedience’ to ‘white, liberal doctrines’ (nonviolence) and embrace Black Nationalism.”

April 3, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave the speech that is now known as “I’ve Been to the Mountain Top.” In his speech he stated:

“And our agenda calls for withdrawing economic support from [big corporations]. And so, as a result of this, we are asking you tonight to go out and tell your neighbors not to buy Coca-Cola in Memphis. Go by and tell them not to buy Sealtest milk. Tell them not to buy, what is the other bread? Wonder Bread. And what is the other bread company, Jesse? Tell them not to buy Hart’s bread. As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now, only the garbage men have been feeling pain; now we must kind of redistribute the pain. We are choosing these companies because they haven’t been fair in their hiring policies; and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. And then they can move on downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right. But not only that, we’ve got to strengthen Black institutions.”

Of the blatant pro-Afrikan jeweled instruction/solutionz he courageously mentioned, these were tangible thingz that could be done non-violently. Such as:

“I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank. We want a ‘bank-in’ movement in Memphis. So go by the savings and loan association. I’m not asking you something we don’t do ourselves at SCLC. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. We’re just telling you to follow what we’re doing. Put your money there. You have six or seven Black insurance companies in Memphis. Take out your insurance there. We want to have an ‘insurance-in.’ Now  these are some practical things we can do. We begin the process of building a greater economic base. And at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I ask you to follow through here.”

This speech would become King’s last public wordz. April 4, 1968, precisely one month to the day after the COINTELPRO memo was released, Dr. King became a victim of American terrorizm.

But as stated, this was orchestrated by more than just James Earl Ray, and even COINTELPRO. See, we don’t look at the direction the next so-called “leader” took.

Historian, Anthony Browder had this to say in his book, From the Browder Files:

“…[T]he memory of King’s life and struggle is slowly being diminished.

Several years ago, on Dr. King’s birthday, I was invited to discuss his life on a radio program. I arrived early and sat in the waiting room and listen as the host played a recording of Dr. King’s “I See The Promise Land” speech. This was King’s last public speech and it was recorded the evening before his assassination.

I had brought a book of King’s speeches for the interview and read along with the recording. I was shocked to discover that the most significant portion of King’s speech (over one page of text) was edited out of the recording. I noted that this speech was recorded on Motown records, with liner notes written by Mrs. King. The text omitted from the recording was of a different image of the King that we now know. This King discussed the power of the black dollar and urged the citizens of Memphis to take their money out of the white owned banks and insurance companies and put it in black owned institutions. This King called for an immediate boycott of Coca Cola, Sealtest Milk and Wonder Bread. This King never got an opportunity to implement his new strategies because he was killed the following day.

Recently I’ve learned that King and Malcolm had talked of developing joint strategies for combating racism in the north and south. But Malcolm was assassinated before they had formulated a plan of action. King later became a marked man when he spoke out against the Viet Nam war in 1967, and advanced the call for human rights just as Malcolm had done.

Since Dr. Kings assassination and the establishment of his holiday, his legacy been reduced to one speech and four simple words…”I have a dream.” Now Malcolm’s image is being watered down so that it is more palatable to America’s tastes.

If we want to know the real Malcolm or Martin, or any other African or African American hero or shero, we must be willing to dig deep into their past. We must read their writings, listen to their speeches, and not be mislead by Hollywood productions and made for TV movies of their lives. We must study the treasured lives of those near and dear to us and we should not expect their stories to be handed to us on a silver platter.”

[Excerpt from ‘Fakin’ Jack(son)‘:

August 19, 2003, The Final Call printed a piece entitled, “SCLC Returns to Memphis”. Many are not aware there are those who believe Jesse was involved in Martin Luther King’s death and that there was an investigation—even the late Corretta Scott King (later retracted by the Final Call the following week. Why really? Don’t know)!

Remember back in 1998, right before the alleged assassin, James Earl Ray, met with the King family? Many don’t know that the following year there was a conspiracy trial (King vs. Lloyd Jowers and other unknown conspiratorz) for King’s death in 1999, where a jury consisting of six Afrikanz and six whites concluded King’s death was in fact, a result of a multi-tiered government conspiracy.

At the end of the trial, good ol’ Jesse wrote an editorial that appeared in the Los Angeles Times, where he stated, “For those of us who were with Dr. King in Memphis, the ‘lone assassin’ theory always seemed suspect. James Earl Ray had neither the means nor the method nor the motive to stalk Dr. King, shoot him and arrange his own getaway. Despite these misgivings, the lone assassin theory became the near universal explanation. Deviation from it was too forbidding, for any conspiracy would point directly to government involvement, or at least acquiescence, in King’s murder.”

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A panel consisting of Cokely, Dick Gregory, Martin King III, Rev. Bernice King, attorneyz William Peper and Lewis Garrison and otherz—was put together by the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) entitled, “Fact or Fiction: The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.”, where they talked about the setup that had MLK on the second floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel (in Memphis, Tennessee) at 6pm as a sitting duck for a bullet.

It is alleged 15 minutes before King was shot, Jesse removed a community group from the hotel that was there to protect King. Why? And why hasn’t anyone questioned him about this? In addition, the evening before that fateful day (April 3rd), the night he performed his last speech, “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop”, it’s believed a ‘practice run’ was conducted where King, Jesse and party was pictured outside the motel on the second floor at 6pm on their way to dinner.

It is also believed by some that MLKs room was mysteriously changed from the ground floor to second floor that same evening. 6:01pm the following day, a .30-06 caliber rifle bullet rang out entering King’s right jaw, traveling through his neck, severing his spinal cord, stopped in his shoulder blade, and shortly thereafter, ended his life.

If you look at the pictures from the day King was killed, none have surfaced (to my knowledge) that show Jesse on the balcony with King’s right-hand man, Ralph Abernathy and Boule’ member, Andrew Young. But somehow, the picture from the day before became the ‘official’ candid moments before King died. As well, amongst the chaos, Jesse’s career just so happened to take off…

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After the ambulance took away his body, all that was left was a massive amount of King’s blood. Abernathy, in a state of shock grabbed a jar and started scraping up the blood, crying how it was King’s blood and precious, “This blood was shed for us,” he allegedly stated.

Nearly a whole half-hour after King was shot, Jesse comes on the scene, makin’ his way to the balcony—many thought he was hiding down by the pool. Young rememberz seeing Jackson dip his handz in the huge pool of blood and after raising them to the sky, wiped the blood on his shirt. Young stated, “people freaked out and did strange things… it was… it was… I mean, what do you do in a moment like that?” If you’re Jesse, you take advantage!

The majority of hedz from the SCLC quickly followed King to the hospital leaving Jesse Jackson behind. This is where Jesse seized the opportunity! He told otherz not to say anything to the Media. Once the Media arrived at the hotel, they quickly focused on Jesse, now with King’s blood all over his shirt. With the rest of the SCLC at the hospitial, Jesse pretty much anointed himself—with the sacrificial blood of King—as the media spokesman stating to the press, “The black people’s leader, our Moses, the once in a 400 or 500-year leader has been taken from us by hatred and bitterness. Even as I stand at this hour, I cannot even allow hate to enter my heart at this time, for it was sickness, not meanness, that killed him. People were, some were in pandemonium, some were in shock, some were crying, hollering, “Oh, God!” And I immediately started running upstairs to where he was and I caught his head and I tried to feel his head and I asked him, I said, “Dr. King, do you hear me? Dr. King, do you hear me?” And he didn’t say anything and I tried to hold his head.” So noble of him to come on the scene after everything went down!

(Exceprt from, ‘And the Walls Came Tumbling Down‘ by Ralph David Abernathy, “It seems that shortly after the ambulance had left, the press had converged on the place, camera crews and reporters, local staff and network, all eager to put someone on camera to tell the story. Jesse and Hosea had both agreed that until they knew what had happened, they would avoid the press and stay out of sight. At least that’s what Hosea had thought was the understanding.

So he was more than a little surprised to look out the window and see Jesse, standing in front of several cameras, speaking into a microphone that a reporter was holding in his face. Curious, Hosea slipped outside and eased up behind Jesse, though on the other side of a chain-link fence.

“Yes,” Jesse was saying, “I was the last person he spoke to as I was cradling him in my arms.”same story, or very nearly the same, that morning on The Today Show.” (end Excerpt)

While the rest of SCLC was back at the motel trying to figure out their next steps, like Bobby Brown leavin’ New Edition, after meeting with reporterz outside the motel, Jesse quickly left Memphis, makin’ his way back to Chicago where in 14, I repeat, just 14 hourz after King’s death, he appeared on the Today show with his bloody shirt while a newly hired booking agent got him spots on other TV showz. You mean to tell me in the midst of all this chaos, this cat found the time to hire a bookin’ agent?! King just died, yo!!

And the show didn’t stop there! Later that afternoon Jesse appeared before the Chicago City Council wearing a blood-stained shirt and saying that it was the same shirt he had been wearing the previous evening when he had held Martin.

Now ask yourselves, why else would he wear a shirt with blood on it from the previous day? He surely didn’t wear this shirt as he travelled back to Chicago from Tennessee! In addition, why would he tell bold-faced lies of him bein’ the last person he spoke to when he showed up 30 minutes after he was shot? As many believe (and some can prove), this wasn’t Jesse seizin’ an opportunity that just so happen to fall in his lap, this was planned! Overnight Jesse Jackson became a nationally known figure, self-appointing him as the next leader of the Civil Rights Movement!

Oh, Jesse wasn’t alone! Many hedz know he was a gangster (had affiliation, along with half-brother, Noah Robinson, with the notorious street gang the Blackstone Rangers and leader, Jeff Fort, who was later convicted of killin’ more than 200 people). So we can assume Abernathy, Young and company feared Jesse’s constituents with some not make waves; to go along to get along.

Several hedz, along with Young created the historical photo-still that fooled the whole world, they pointed in what’s believed by several hedz, in the wrong direction of where the shot came from. One other jewel is the allegationz of King tellin’ his close friend, Ralph Abernathy, not to trust Jesse, suspecting him to be an agent.

What fellow Boule’ member Andrew Young said and what we know of Jackson’s steps hourz after King was dead, it’s quite obvious a blind-eye was turned enabling the collaboratorz and possible true gunmen were able to get away. The following actionz of Jackson are what standz as a reason questionz remain:

  • Jesse had MLKs room changed from the first level to the second level floor at the Lorraine hotel, room 306.
  • Orchestrated or partook in pointing in the wrong direction the alleged shots came from.
  • Didn’t wear a tie coding him as a “friendly” as assassinatorz were told not to wear a tie (see in Cokely’s video, pt.2)
  • Rubbed his handz on King’s bloodied chest, saturates them then rubz his handz on his shirt later to show up alleging him the next anointed one.

From what we know tracking Jackson I pose this question: why didn’t this self-anointed protege of MLK carry on the new agenda King spoke of in his last dayz? We know both were in Boule’, but with MLKs certain transformation and knowing what we know of the Boule’ and how their known and written allegiance to GWS (Global White Supremacy), it’s easy to suspect why Jesse did what he did pre- (spying, not having MLKs trust), during- (pointing in wrong direction of shooter), and post- MLKs death. I can only imaging had he lived at least one more year what we would’ve learned about the U.S. government, Jesse, and the Boule’.

Despite his rep of short-lived boycotts; despite being part of the 381-day Montgomery Bus Boycott, he has yet to implement any of the clear win strategies MLK laid out in his last speech and book.

With the official record files on King and his case to be “fully” released to the public around the year 2028, I ask this last question, what kind of justice system waits 60 yearz to release publicly when at this point, the culprits and co-conspiratorz will long gone?!

As you enjoy this King Holiday, take a few moments to reflect and educate yourself on the story they don’t want you to know by watching Cokely’s lecture and learn just who actually killed MLK, or at least has blood on their shirt—I mean handz!

Know that what they want you to know is not what you should know.

Dua, MLK for your courage to accept your change and be vocal about it and Bro. Cokely for your research and courage to share!

Bless…

Article written by M’Bwebe Aja Ishangi

Sam Cooke,James Brown,Michael Jackson,Whitney,Prince….who’s next?

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Last Thursday pop/rock star Prince passed away.  The music icon best known for hits such as 1999,Purple Rain,Pop Life and Little Red Corvette was only 57 years young. It’s been all over the news. The media is trying to say it may have been the flu.  But I’m not buying it.  First of all, this post wont be about the androgynous appearance of Prince.  Or how he blurred the lines of genders.  I respect his talent but had major issues with the feminine energy that he gave off.  I can save that for a later date.  This post is about the mysterious deaths of many black celebs. Prince is just the latest pop star death in recent years. There is a lot of controversy about his death. Many people believe there was foul play since he had a legal battle with Warner Bros.  He won the legal battle to get control of his music then all of a sudden …..he dies.  This is a bit strange for a man who worked out everyday and was a vegan.  He was a pretty healthy guy.  I’ve noticed a pattern of death when black people try to gain control of their music catalog. The Hollywood/music industry is controlled by Zionist Jews.  They want black people to perform for the masses but not own anything.  Great talents like James Brown,Sam Cooke and Whitney Houston are used to entertain people and make billions for the racist Jews.  But they don’t want black people to own or control anything.  Sam Cooke tried to get control of his music publishing and he was killed in a strange shooting.  You can read some of it here:

http://panafricannews.blogspot.com/2006/12/death-of-sam-cooke-conspiracy-theories.html

These deaths always seem to come out when people speak out against the music or Hollywood industry. Prince was quoted as saying :

“Record contracts are just like — I’m gonna say the word – slavery,” the artist told a group of journalists at Paisley Park Studios in Minneapolis. “I would tell any young artist…don’t sign.”

Slavery?  Why would he say that?  Why would he tell young artist to not sign? I thought it was everyone’s dream to live in mansions,have nice cars and be filthy rich.  It seems as though Prince knew that blacks controlled nothing in the industry. And blacks are just slaves here to make money for others.  Michael Jackson spoke out too.  He had bought the bulk of the Sony music catalog. And said that most black entertainers die penniless.  Of course he died as well from an “accidental overdose”.

The reality is that many of these singers and actors must take an oath to get in the industry.  Many people say there is a “blood oath” a person must take to get in the industry.  Many times you will hear the term the “Illuminati” to explain it.  But these are just well organized white groups.  People don’t like to looked at as a conspiracy theorist so they might not say anything about it.  But I have been doing research on secret socities such as the Club of Rome,Skull and Bones,Freemasons,The Knights Templar,Bilderberg Group,satanic cults and Rosicrucians .These groups have been around for a very long time. Some of them have been around for over 100 years.   They are mostly filled with Jews and whites. But there  are groups like the Boule that is for the black entertainers and politicains  You can check it out here:

https://kushiteprince.wordpress.com/2012/09/11/the-boule-skull-and-bones-society-part-1/

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These groups perform satanic rituals all the time.  They have people killed on certain dates and time periods.  The world is ruled by numbers and signs.  Many celebs take the oath and don’t care about the consequences..until it’s too late. But many have had to have a “blood sacrifice” to keep their fame and fortune.  Some have had to have family members killed so they can stay in the limelight. In the end I don’t think it’s worth it.

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Black people I beg you to do some research.  It’s not about being a conspiracy theorist. It’s about using your critical thinking skills so you know what’s going on around you.  As long as you’re still in the dark,you don’t know what your ENEMY is doing to you. This type of information scares many people that’s why they don’t talk about it.  They want to run and hide and hope it’s not true.  That’s why people want to argue with me on the internet all the time.  And I get resistance from people who have done no research at all.  Yet they want to tell me I’m wrong.  If you haven’t done any research on these issues then just don’t say anything at all.  It’s better to just sit back and let the teachers teach. But my blog is here to wake my people up.  We can no longer be ignorant while our people are killed and we say silent. I realize these celebs made their choice and they paid the price.  Which is proff that black people need our own record industries,film and television studios.  With NO white people involved.  We need to own and control everything from top to bottom.  We just have to believe in our own capabilities and know we have the talent to do it.  Otherwise we will just be slaves…like Prince said.

Stay strong black people. It’s a hard but we will win in the end.  One people,One Love, One Tribe.

Here’s some sites to check out if you want more information on occult knowledge:

http://vigilantcitizen.com/

http://www.trickedbythelight.com/tbtl/movies.shtml

https://mindcontrolblackassassins.com/

http://www.itsaboutthattime.net/art/hollywoodoccult.html

 

 

Patrice Lumumba- Congolese Warrior

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During his exile in the 1980s, Mr Holden Roberto – president of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) – and one of his collaborators, visited me in my office at Howard University in Washington. In order to counter accusations (incidentally well-founded) levelled at his party, of colluding with American imperialism and selling out on their commitment to Pan-Africanism, my two visitors began by reciting in its entirety Patrice Emery Lumumba’s famous speech at the Congolese independence ceremony on 30th June 1960. This gesture – which strongly affected me – shows the attachment you still find across the whole African continent, even among its lost sheep, for this martyr for African nationalism and the struggles of oppressed peoples all over the world.

Rare are the African countries where one does not find streets, even main roads, named after Lumumba. Many African children born after his assassination have ‘Lumumba’ as their forename. The former executive secretary of the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission (2002-5) and president of the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (2010-11) is called Patrick Lumumba, and his passion for change and eloquence recalls those qualities in his namesake.

These two references to the political heritage of Lumumba show how the assassination of this great African leader resonated – and continues to resonate – with Africans. In his excellent book, The Assassination of Lumumba, Belgian sociologist Ludo de Witte shows the significance of this particular assassination in the history of Western tactics against the anti-imperialist revolutions of the 20th Century – from Mossadegh’s Iran to Nasserist Egypt, Castro’s Cuba, Lumumba’s Congo and Sankara’s Burkina Faso.

It is in this context – the struggle between the interests of the international bourgeoisie and those of the popular masses – that we must understand the factors contributing to Lumumba’s assassination, its political consequences for Congo, and the place of this Congolese hero in the pantheon of universal defenders of the emancipation of peoples.

The assassination of Lumumba was the outcome of two conspiracies closely bound together with the American and Belgian governments, which relied on the complicity of certain Congolese leaders and a Belgian firing squad composed of soldiers and policemen under the Katanga puppet regime.

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Patrice Lumumba – the man and his political project

Who is Patrice Lumumba, and why was he so violently assassinated by the forces of counter-revolution? Born on 2nd July 1925 in Onalua, a small village in the region of Katako-Kombe, Lumumba received his education at primary school as well as among Belgian Catholic missionaries at Tshumbe Sainte-Marie and the famous Methodist mission in Wembo Nyama. He was not appreciated there, neither among the representatives of the colonial trinity (the State, big business, the Catholic Church) nor by the American missionaries – themselves fervent believers in the ideology of white supremacy prevalent in the Southern states of the USA, and too weak to contest colonial repression. An intellectually precocious pupil who rebelled against the thundering paternalism of the missionaries, the young Lumumba decided to leave Sankuru in 1944 without obtaining his certificate of study in order to spread his wings elsewhere. After several months in the region of Kindu, he would go on to pursue a career as a bureaucrat in Kisangani (then Stanleyville). It was during this long stay at Kisangani (1944-57) that Lumumba developed his characteristic traits; moral and intellectual integrity, immovability on points of principle, and exceptional bravery even in the face of death. As one of the members of the firing squad which killed him recalled, Lumumba maintained a glacial calm in front of the executioners.

At Kisangani, Lumumba distinguished himself as president, vice president, or secretary, of at least seven organisations of Congolese évolués – literally meaning ‘evolved people’, this term was used by the Belgian colonial establishment to distinguish a class of ‘Westernised’ blacks. An autodidact, with the exception of a year of professional training at the École Postale in Kinshasa (then Leopoldville), he succeeded in acquiring immense knowledge about the contemporary world through extensive, self-guided reading on politics and history. According to Thomas Kanza, his collaborator and biographer, Lumumba ‘read all that fell into his hands’. As leader, he was a convincing and effective representative for the Kisangani evolués, liaising with the governor of the province, the Belgian minister of the colonies, Auguste Buisseret, and the young king, Baudouin I, during his first visit to Congo in 1955. Still a believer in the idea of the Belgo-Congolese community, promulgated by amicales belgo-congolais, clubs comprising evolués and those Belgians open to a gradual process of integration, Lumumba was invited to Belgium for the first time in 1956.

Fearing his perspicacity and well-founded criticisms of colonial racism, the colonial authorities welcomed his return from Brussels with a charge of tax avoidance, followed by a sentence of two years in prison by a trial court in Kisangani. The public prosecutor, judging this punishment insufficient, made an appeal, but the court of appeal in Kinshasa confirmed the sentence of two years. This punishment was reduced to four months, which he had already served in preventative detention, followed by a royal order granting grace, signed on 27th August 1957.

If Kisangani had given him the political apprenticeship he needed to master the mysteries of organisation and political practice, these two experiences of Kinshasa, of the École Postale and his incarceration, contributed in a decisive way to the awakening of his political consciousness. During his training in postal service administration in 1948, Lumumba made a short visit to Brazzaville, on the right bank of the River Congo opposite Kinshasa. Thirsty from walking, he stopped outside a café with the hope of finding a waiter who would give him a glass of water. To his surprise, it was the European café patron who noticed him, and invited him to sit where the whites were seated and brought him, not tap water, but mineral water. For the sociologist Pierre Clément – for whom he would work as a research assistant four years later –here was the first time that Lumumba realised that another world was possible, habituated as he was to the system of apartheid practised in Belgian Congo. Reinvigorated by the model of assimilation among the French in Congo-Brazzaville – though the ‘card of civic merit’ in 1948 and formal registration in 1952 did not succeed in guaranteeing equality of access to jobs, medical treatment, housing, social services and recreation – an évolué Lumumba felt his long-cowed spirit emboldened enough to dream of a more beautiful country than Belgian Congo.

This dream of radical change would reinforce itself further during his months of incarceration, during which Lumumba had the occasion to lead a serious reflection on the future of Congo and to read the famous ‘Plan de trente ans pour l’émancipation politique de l’Afrique belge’ by A.A.J Van Bilsen, a little known professor at the Colonial University of Anvers, together with the two Congolese reactions to this document: first, ‘Manifeste de la Conscience Africaine’, the work of a group of catholic intellectuals represented by Joseph Ileo, Joseph Malula (future cardinal) and Joseph Ngalula; second, the counter-manifesto by l’Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO), an ethnic association led by Joseph Kasavubu. After leaving prison, Lumumba installed himself in Kinshasa where, from 1957, he launched himself into the political struggle. Joining up with Ileo and Ngalula, he succeeded, in October 1958, in taking the leadership of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), a political organisation started up with the intention of eventually becoming a credible political party at the national level.

By a happy confluence of circumstances, the year 1958 ended with the emergence of Patrice Lumumba as one of the principal leaders in the struggle for independence. The turning point was the visit to Kinshasa by two east African leaders on their way to the first ‘Conference des peuples Africains’, held in Accra between the 5th and 13th December 1958. Concerned that a large country like Congo risked missing out on this great African rendez-vous, A.R. Mohamed Babu of Zanzibar and Tom Mboya of Kenya asked a hotel worker where they could find the political leaders of the emerging independence movement. The worker in question was very happy to bring about a meeting with Patrice Lumumba, then the commercial director of the Brasserie du Bas-Congo (Bracongo), which produced the beer Polar. Lumumba often offered this to clients, ostensibly for promotional purposes but often using this as an opportunity to awaken the clients’ political consciousness. Babu and Mboya were so impressed by Lumumba that they sent a telegram to the Pan African Freedom Movement for East and Central Africa (PAFMECA) asking for money to bring a Congolese delegation to Accra.

And so Patrice Lumumba, Gaston Diami and Joseph Ngalula accompanied Babu and Mboya to Accra, where Lumumba attracted the notice of the delegates at the conference, which brought together representatives from the 8 independent countries (Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and those of the political parties, trade unions and other organisations of the civil society of the Pan-African world. There he met the leaders of national liberation movements such as Félix-Roland Moumié of the Union des Populations de Cameroun (UPC), Frantz Fanon of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) of Algeria, and Amilcar Cabral of the Parti Africain pour L’independence de Guinéeet du Cap Vert (PAIGC), and he established strong working relationships with some great African leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Modibo Keita and Ahmed Sékou Touré.

On his return to Kinshasa, Lumumba organized a popular demonstration on Sunday 28th December to inform the Congolese population of the resolutions of the Accra conference and their implications for the independence movement in Congo. Following the refusal by the first Belgian mayor of Kinshasa to allow ABAKO to hold a similar meeting the following Sunday, 4th January 1959, the population of Kinshasa rose in a three-day rebellion which sounded the death knell for the Belgian colonial regime in Congo. “Indépendance immediate”, the slogan of protestors, became a non-negotiable demand in the struggle of the Congolese people for their total freedom. Instead of the thirty years suggested by Van Bilsen in 1956, independence was obtained in four. The mobilisation of the population by radical political parties like ABAKA and MNC-L was responsible for the erosion of legitimacy, as much as the repressive abilities, of the colonial regime. Lumumba benefited from this new situation by placing the MNC-L throughout all the provinces of the country, to the point that his party became the spearhead of the Congolese independence struggle.

BELGIUM LUMUMBA

The assassination of Lumumba        

For more than 128 years, the US and Belgium played key roles in fashioning the destiny of the Congo. In April 1884, seven months after the opening of Congress in Berlin, the US became the first country in the world to recognise the claims of King Leopold of Belgium to the Congo basin territories. When the atrocities linked to the brutal economic exploitation of Congo led to millions of deaths, the US joined with other global powers to force Belgium to put an end to the status of Congo as a personal possession of King Leopold II and to give it the status of an ordinary colony. During the colonial period (1908- 60), the US saw Congo’s strategic advantage due to its abundant natural resources, above all its uranium, which was used to created the first atomic weapons, the bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

With the launching of the Cold War, it was inevitable that Washington and her Western allies would not be disposed to give Africans control over their own strategically valuable natural resources, for fear that they would fall into the hands of their Soviet enemies. Because of this, Patrice Lumumba’s attempt to secure an authentic independence and to obtain effective control over the resources of Congo, with the aim of improving the living standards of our people, was seen as a threat to Western interests. In their fight against him, Washington and Brussels used all the tools and resources at their disposal, including the United Nations under Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld and his U.S. assistant Ralph Bunche, Lumumba’s Congolese political enemies, and his assassins.

In Congo, the assassination of Lumumba is, for good reason, considered the ‘original sin’ of the country. Occurring less than seven months after independence (30th June 1960), it was a stumbling block for ideals of national unity, economic independence, and the African solidarity for which Lumumba had advocated, as well as being a terrible blow to the hopes for freedom and material prosperity of millions of Congolese people. In place of this, the country was divided into four parts: the west of the country under the central government of Kinshasa; the north west under a rival central government led by Lumumba partisans; and the mining provinces of Katanga and Sud Kasaï under the secessionist regimes of Moïse Tshombe and Albert Kalonji, at Lumumbashi (Elisabethville) and Mbuji-Mayi (Bakwanga) respectively.

The neo-colonial regime of Kinshasa was born from the dismissal of Lumumba by president Kasavubu in 1960 and the coup d’etat of 14th September by which colonel Joseph-Desiré Mobutu claimed to neutralise both protagonists of the institutional crisis. Based on an obscure article of ‘La Loi Fondamentale’, the temporary constitution bequeathed to Congo by Belgium, this action ran contrary to all the political conventions of a parliamentary system where the prime minister enjoys a majority in parliament. This was the case with Lumumba: the two chambers rejected Kasavubu’s action as invalid. The Western puppet-masters understood then that there would have to be a military intervention to remove Lumumba from power, and Mobutu had already been making preparations to this end from the beginning of the Congolese crisis in July. A former ally of Prime Minister Lumumba, he was at the same time linked to the forces of the counter-revolution as an informer for the Belgian and American security services.

It was this man who became the real master of Kinshasa, in his role as head of the Binza Group. So-labelled because its members lived and met up in the well-off residential district of Binza, this powerful clique drew its power from its members’ influence over crucial institutions and politicians; the army (Mobutu); the police (Victor Nendaka); the ministry of foreign affairs (Justin Bomkoko), the ministry of the interior (Damien Kandolo), the Central Bank (Albert Ndele). These individuals worked in close collaboration with Prime Minister Cyrille Adoula and President Kasavabu, and no important decision could be taken by these last two without the approval of the Binza group, the hub of neocolonialism in Congo.

Patrice4...

The secessions of Katanga and Sud Kasaï

Of these two secessions, that of Sud Kasaï is the lesser-known one yet it also played an important role in the political and physical assassination of Patrice Lumumba. Proclaimed on 8th August 1960 in Lumumbashi, the Sud Kasaï secession forged close links with its Katangan counterpart, siding with the interests of international high finance and the counter-revolution, with La Societé Diamantifère Forminière in Kasaï playing the same role – of money-lender – that the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga (UMHK) played in Katanga. The smaller secession took place as the Lumumba administration was receiving logistical assistance from the Soviet Union in order to fight a war against the secession in Katanga, due to the refusal of UN Secretary General Dag Hammerskjöld to allow the Security Council to perform its remit of helping the Congolese government expel the Belgian forces and white mercenaries and put an end to the secession. The soldiers of the National Congolese Army (ANC) en route to Katanga received the order to put an end to the small secession of Sud Kasaï before crossing the border. Unfortunately, the undisciplined soldiers committed atrocious massacres against innocent civilians, including close to a thousand men, women and children who believed themselves safe from danger in the sanctuary of the Catholic Cathedral of Mbuju-Mayi (today Bakwanga).

Dag Hammarskjöld defined these killings as ‘genocide’ against the Luba and pointed the finger at Prime Minister Lumumba. Aside from the fact that the atrocities committed in Sud Kasaï did not correspond to the definition of genocide in international law, these odious crimes were not the sole responsibility of the head of government, but of the entire chain of command: the superior officers on the ground; the Chief of Staff, Mobutu; Prime Minister Lumumba; and President Kasavubu, in his capacity as supreme commander of the armed forces. As such, neither Hammerskjöld nor Kasavabu had any justification either for accusing Lumumba of genocide, or for illegally dismissing him when the responsibility for this incident was largely a collective one.

The capital of Sud Kasaï would be baptised ‘la boucherie’, because it was the chosen site for the summary execution of Lumumbists whom the neo-colonial regime of Kinshasa wanted to destroy. The most famous among the victims is without doubt Jean-Pierre Finant (1922-61), the first democratically-elected governor of the eastern province, of which Kisangani is the capital. Of mixed Belgo-Congolais descent and father of the famous Congolese singer Abeti Masikini (Betty Finant, 1954-94), he was executed on 17th February 1961, exactly one month after the assassination of Lumumba, with eleven companions, including Jacques Lumbala (a former colleague of Mobutu), Emmanuel Nzuzi and Jacques Fataki. As in the case of Lumumba, who was handed over to Katangan secessionists, the Binza group saw no contradiction between collaborating with the secessionist regimes which it needed to destroy, and assassinating their common enemies, the Lumumbists.

The secession of Sud-Kasaï collapsed through its internal contradictions, mainly due to the struggle for power between Joseph Ngalula and Albert Kalonji, who was proclaimed Mulopwe or emperor of the Luba-Kasaï, a people who had never been under the leadership of a single leader since leaving their ancestral birthplace in Katanga in the 18th century. Having returned to Kinshasa to become minister of education for the central government, Ngalula plotted with the Binza group to destroy Kalonji and bring an end to the secession. This came about in September 1962, following an armed revolt under the direction of Kalonji’s Chief of Staff.

Contrary to the Sud-Kasaï secession, where the internal dimension was as crucial to its failure as it was to its birth; in light of the Lulua-Baluba conflict and its poor management – by first, the Belgians, later, Lumumba – the external factor was a defining one in Katanga. As Jean Ziegler aptly described it in his work La contre revolution en Afrique, in its progression towards the south of the continent, the African national liberation movement hit the wall of counter-revolution, whereby the white colonists, mining companies and their right-wing allies in the West, banded together to defend their privileges. Then, from Katanga to the Cape of Good Hope, the white counter-attack manifested itself in the creation of states controlled by white colonists, either directly, as in the case of South Africa, in Namibia and in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyassaland, indirectly through the colonial state (Angola and Mozambique), or via a puppet government of paid-up blacks (Katanga). The essential continuity was that all these regimes succeeded in defending and promoting the interests of colonialists and of the corporations that sought to maximise their profits through the exploitation of badly-paid and quiescent labour. In the context of the cold war, the counter-revolution had no problem in inserting itself in the hegemonic discourse of Western values, Christian and democratic, which excluded communism, atheism and authoritarianism.

Well before the Rhodesian colonialist Ian Smith signed his ‘internal settlement’ with Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Pastor Ndabaningi and Chief Jeremiah Chirau in Zimbabwe, another agreement had already been negotiated in Congo, between the Conféderation des associations tribales de Katanga (CONAKAT) of Moïse Tshombe and Godefroid Munongo, the UMHK and the Union Katangaise – an association representing white colonialists – to allow Katanga to secede from Congo and become an independent state. In this sense, CONAKAT was just a way of giving voice to the interests of white colonialists through African mouths. Without the financial support of the UMHK, the military and technical support of Belgium, and the management of administrative and economic structures by the colonialists, Katanga could not survive as a political entity. Moreover, the secession relied on considerable external support; not only from Belgium, but also from France, the United Kingdom, and the US. In the country of Uncle Sam, the Katangan secession enjoyed solid backing in reactionary circles – lobbyists for the cause included influential senators Barry Goldwater of Arizona (a radical conservative), Thomas Dodd of Connecticut (a Democrat reprimanded by the Senate for corruption), and Strom Thurmond of South Carolina (a notorious racist, despite having fathered a daughter with a black woman).

Following on from the assassination of Lumumba, the Katangan lobby in the US and Europe lost its influence with the key deciders such as John F. Kennedy and Paul-Henri Spaak, the Belgian minister of Foreign Affairs. These men understood that in the context of the Cold War, the territorial integrity of Congo was more useful to the West than a secessionist province which would continue to sow dissent across Africa and in the Third World in general, in turn raising difficult questions about the West’s responsibility for the death of Lumumba. Besides, these deciders no longer perceived a great threat to the economic and strategic interests of the West in Central Africa, given the physical elimination of Lumumba and the marginalization of Lumumbists after Lovanium. It is within this context that Kennedy would give the green light for the UN to put an end to the secession with force. Taking place on 29th November 1962, the UN intervention succeeded, with an agreement of capitulation signed by Tshombe on 17 January 1983. Ironically, the restoration of national unity to which Lumumba had given his life was realised by the interests of the imperial powers and their puppets in the neo-colonial regime in Kinshasa.

These efforts succeeded in putting an end to the Lumumbist regime of Kisangani in August 1961, to the secession of Sud-Kasaï in September 1962 and to that of Katanga in January 1963. The end of these three regimes would consecrate the rise of General Mobutu and his clique, the Binza Group.

Lumumba’s Legacy

Hardly had this process of unification finished before a radical social movement pronouncing a ‘second independence’ rose up to contest the neo-colonial state in Kinshasa and its pro-Western leaders. This mass movement brought together peasants, workers, the urban unemployed and students, alongside low and mid-ranking officials, who found an enthusiastic leadership among the former lieutenants of Patrice Lumumba, of which the majority had reformed to create the Conseil National de Libération (CNL) in October 1963 in Brazzaville.

Divided on the field into two wings – the Kwilu front, led by Pierre Mulele, and the Eastern front under Christopher Gbenye, Gaston Soumialot and Laurent-Desiré Kabila – the strengths and weaknesses of the movement can be used to gauge the global heritage of Patrice Lumumba, for Congo and the whole of Africa. The most positive aspect of this legacy is reflected in Pierre Mulele’s dedication to a radical program of change to satisfy the deep aspirations of the Congolese people for democracy and social progress. On the other hand, the Lumumbists of the Eastern front were more interested in power, and the privileges it conferred, than in genuine social change. In the latter case, it was all rhetoric and no action. In effect, the challenge for all those who want to follow in the footsteps of Lumumba is to make the leap from words into action.

A struggle that is far from over…

According to unconfirmed reports, Walter Kansteiner – US Secretary of State for African Affairs under George W. Bush, between June 2001 and November 2003 – designed a plan for the division of Congo into four countries. The justification for such a Balkanisation would be that, in its present dimensions, the country is too large and ungovernable. For the extreme right of the US Republican Party, and those with interests in the resources of tropical Africa – as is the case with the family business W.H Kansteiner, Inc of Chicago – this would facilitate access to resources, and make their transfer to outside markets easier. Besides, if Rwanda and Uganda could play the role of facilitator, why not?

For those nostalgic for the ‘White Man’s Burden’, and their lackeys in Africa, the reality is that their project for the recolonization of Congo will always stumble against the determination of the Congolese people to defend their unity, their national patrimony, and the territorial integrity of their homeland. The legacy of Patrice Lumumba, Pierre Lulele, André Kisase Ngandu and so many other martyrs brings women, men and children to shout “No” to balkanization and “Yes” to a “United Congo, a strong nation.” Just as the progressive leaders of the struggle for independence chanted this slogan on the eve of the achievement of sovereignty – united and nationalistic men and women of integrity – the real children of Lumumba continue to defend, against the odds, the greater interests of the Congolese nation.

Article by Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja